United Nations Framework Agreement On Climate Change
The parties encourage and facilitate the development and implementation of education and awareness programs on climate change and its effects, as well as training of scientific, technical and management staff. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, in force in March 1994, was ratified by all 33 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The aim of the agreement is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that prevents dangerous anthropogenic disturbances in the climate system. This agreement provides a general framework for intergovernmental efforts to address the challenges posed by climate change. The UNFCCC aims to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic human intervention in the Earth`s climate system.  Such a level should be achieved within sufficient time to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable sustainable economic development.   Under the Cancun Agreements, developed and developing countries submitted mitigation plans to the UNFCCC.   These plans are developed as part of the Bali Action Plan. In the years leading up to the Paris Agreement, IUCN has consistently made scientific and technical contributions to the parties, stressing that while biodiversity and ecosystems are threatened by climate change, their conservation, restoration and sustainable management provide important and sustainable solutions to climate change.
These cost-effective, unserumed solutions can contribute to both mitigation and adaptation objectives, while providing other important economic, social and environmental benefits, while allowing the parties to contribute simultaneously to other internationally agreed framework conditions. At the 19th meeting of the Conference of the Parties in Warsaw in 2013, the UNFCCC set up a Planned National Contribution Mechanism (INDC) to be presented in preparation for the 21st Conference of the Parties in Paris (COP21) in 2015.  Countries have benefited from freedom and flexibility to ensure that these climate change and adaptation plans are appropriate at the national level;  This flexibility, particularly with regard to the types of measures to be taken, has enabled developing countries to adapt their plans to their specific adaptation and mitigation needs as well as to other needs. Following the signing of the UNFCCC Treaty, the parties to the UNFCCC met at conferences (“Conferences of the Parties” – COPs) to discuss how to achieve the treaty`s objectives. At the first Conference of the Parties (COP-1), the parties decided that the objective of the Schedule I parties to stabilize their emissions at their 1990 level by the year 2000 was “not appropriate” and further discussions took place at subsequent conferences on the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. The Kyoto Protocol was concluded and legally binding commitments were made under international law to enable developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions over the 2008-2012 period.  At the 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference, an agreement was presented to limit global warming to less than 2oC above pre-industrial levels.  Climate change policy may result in relevant costs for Article 2.  For example, stricter measures to control greenhouse gas emissions can reduce the risk of more severe climate change, but may also be more costly to implement.    To stabilize GHG concentrations in the atmosphere, global anthropogenic GHG emissions are expected to peak and then decrease (see climate protection).  Lower stabilization levels would require an earlier peak and a reduction in emissions relative to higher stabilization levels.  The graph above shows annual variations in global GHG emissions (measured in CO2 equivalents) for different stabilization scenarios.