The Union Shop Agreement
The NRL requires workers to receive at least 30 days from the date the union is hired before they can be dismissed for non-union affiliation or for paying taxes; shorter periods apply in the construction industry. The RLA gives workers 60 days to join the union. However, the union cannot require a worker to become a “reputable” member, i.e. to do more than stolen or equivalent goods. While a union-shop agreement that, on its literal terms, requires a worker to be a reputable member may appear illegal on its face and therefore unenforceable, the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) and the courts have interpreted these clauses uniformly so as not to require more than the law allows (for example. B payment of taxes). Article 7, Section 1 of Japan`s Trade Union Act 1949 expressly authorizes the negotiation of trade union-shop provisions, provided that the union represents the majority of workers on the site. However, Article 28 of the Japanese Constitution protects freedom of association. The Japanese courts have fought against the two opposing legal values and have found that the right to organization is greater than the right to freedom of association.  However, the court created five conditions for the adoption of a unionization agreement: The NRA imposes additional requirements before a union can avail itself of a union agreement requiring an employer to dismiss a worker who does not pay dues. While the union is not obligated to withdraw the type of test hearing required by the MRA to expel a trade unionist for other reasons, the union must give the worker a detailed written explanation of the amount of levies owed and how those levies were calculated and give the worker an appropriate opportunity to pay those fees and fees payable before he asks for the worker`s dismissal.
In addition, the union must give all workers roughly the same opportunity to cure all delinquency before seeking dismissal; If the union gives a worker two weeks to pay the taxes due, it must do the same for all the others. On the other hand, the union is not obliged to withdraw an application to dismiss a worker for non-payment of dues due if the employee makes the payment after the expiry of the period, but before the relief of the employer`s burden. A union may reimburse dismissed workers in the absence of such protection; the employer may be held liable if he is in charge of the discharge, if he knew or should have known that the union did not meet the minimum requirements of the NRA. Rand`s decision required all workers to pay union dues, but protected the right of workers not to join the union or to participate in other actions in the maintenance of the union. In the late 1940s and 1950s, many Canadian provinces adopted the “marginal” formula in their labour laws. In 1997, the federal government and six provinces (British Columbia, Manitoba, Newfoundland, Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan) imposed the marginal formula for labour relations.